Dr Keith Baar: mTOR, Keto Diet, Collagen, High & Low Plyo Athletes,ect


Level 6 Valued Member
IHMC STEM-Talk Episode 63 with Keith Baar Part 2

mTOR, The Ketogenic Diet and Exercise
34:40 Minutes

1) mTOR inhibition by rapamycin increases life span.

2) The Ketogenic Diet and Exercise has a "Tissue Specific Effect."
a) Decreases signaling to the liver.
b) Increases signaling in the muscle.

3) Exercise "Target Specificity"
a) Inhibits mTOR signaling in liver.
b) Increasing signaling in the muscle.
c) Decrease mTOR activity in body fat.
d) Probably increases mTOR activity in the brain.

4) The Ketogenic Diet "Target Specificity"

mTOR is NOT inhibited "Globally" on the Ketogenic Diet; (Globally meaning in all tissue).

5) Animals on Ketogenic Diet for 14 months...
a) Muscle Mass was heavier
b) Muscle was stronger
c) Muscle had better endurance
d) Maintains and/or increases Mitochondria Mass.
e) Like exercise, increases mental function into old age; memory and learning.
f) Increases longevity by up to 13%; Research Dr John Ramsey.

Athletic Performance and Health
45:15 Minutes

Baar's "Plyometric Load" meaning the "Impact Force".

This example of Plyometric Load/Impact Force is from another source. It's determined that Walking produces an impact force from each foot fall of 1.5 time your body weight. A 200 lb person encountering 300 lb impact force with each foot fall landing.

Running produced impact forces of 3 - 5 time your body weight with each foot fall. A 200 lb person encountering 600 to 1,000 lbs of impact force with each foot fall landing.

1) Low Plyometric Sports
a) Lower mechanical loads (virtually non-existent) occur with Swimming, Cycling, Rowing, etc. (Less Trauma to Tendons).
b) Lower Plyometric Sports need to focus on Plyometric Movements in their training, as well as Limit Strength Training.

2) High Velocity Plyometric Sports
a) Higher mechanical loading occurs with sports like Soccer (running impact forces) and Football (contact forces).
b) The High Velocity of Plyometric Movements ("Fast Exercises") leads to an increase in Tendon Stiffness which increase force production; the greater the tendon stiffness, the faster the athlete.
c) High Velocity Plyometric Movement ("Fast Exercises") Impact Force Loads increases the chances of an injury; greater trauma is placed on tendons.
d) Plyometric Sport Athletes need to focus on Limit Strength Training to maintain tendon and ligament health/recovery.

Met Analysis
...on injury prevention
1) Stretching has zero effect on injury rate prevention.
2) Slower Strength Movements with Heavy Weight Training can decrease injury rate by approximately 50%.

Mixed Training

1) High Velocity Sports need to focus on Slow Limit Strength; keeps tendons, ligaments and muscles healthy.

2) Low Velocity Sports needs to include High Velocity Plyometric Training, as well as Limit Strength; to strengthen tendon.

High Carbohydrate Load After Training Not Necessary for mTOR
49:50 Minutes

1) Training activates mTOR independent of insulin and IGF-1 signaling from carbohydrates.
2) Since exercise has already elicited mTOR; spiking Insulin and/or IGF-1 with carbohydrates post workout, has no additional effect on mTOR.
3) Amino Acids are all you need to activate mTOR post workout.
4) Post Workout Carbohydrates not necessary to grow muscle. Carbohydrates are not needed for an anabolic response.
5) The only time Post Workout Carbohydrates are needed is to replenish glucose for another training session within 6 hours.

Show notes:

4:23: Ken states that mTOR inhibition by rapamycin is arguably the only strategy that has reliably resulted in lifespan extension across a multitude of different species. He goes on to say that we know that mTORC1 activation increases muscle mass and strength, which is critical for optimizing health span into old age. He goes on to bring up a recent paper Keith co-authored with Megan Roberts that showed the ketogenic diet had tissue-specific effects on mTORC1 signaling; decreasing signaling in the liver, while increasing it in the muscle. Ken postulates that perhaps researchers should focus their attention on tissue-specific mTOR activity, to further elucidate the issue of balancing mTOR for longevity with the maintenance of muscle for strength quality. Ken asks Keith if he had unlimited resources, how would Keith design a study to explore this.

8:45: Ken talks about how Keith has noted that tendon stiffness is dependent upon collagen content, and the amount of cross links within. He goes on to mention that Keith has developed various training modalities, as well as nutritional protocols, that can increase and decrease tendon stiffness. Ken begins this line of inquiry by asking about the training methods for this purpose.

28:22: Ken, coming back to tendon stiffness, mentions that in addition to fast exercise, inactivity also leads to increased tendon stiffness, counterintuitive as that is.

Kenny Croxdale
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Anna C

Level 9 Valued Member
Elite Certified Instructor
Fascinating stuff! Thanks for that synopsis, Kenny.

North Coast Miller

Level 7 Valued Member

Yea, fascinating information on how vital they are for strength and power.

Also, how to increase tendon strength, make them stiffer, so the stretch reflex elicit more power.

Kenny Croxdale
I listened to it twice and will again when I have more time. Was amazed at the time scale for adaptive response - I'd always imagined it to take considerably longer.

Thank you very much for the initial link.

Anna C

Level 9 Valued Member
Elite Certified Instructor
Dr Baar has a good episode on Science of Ultra podcast, if that is an interest to anyone.
It is excellent! I'm halfway through this one. After that I need to go back and listen to the one in the OP that Kenny posted. Great stuff.
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