Velocity Based Training

kennycro@@aol.com

> 1k Posts
Velocity Based Training

Compensatory"Story Acceleration Training


This phrase and method of training was coined and developed by Dr Fred Hatfield back in the 1980's.

Side Note: A couple of StrongFirst articles noted that Hatfield was the first to Squat 1,000, which is incorrect.

Dave Wadding ton [Dave Waddington - Wikipedia] was the first; credit to where credit is due.

Hatfield was a World Champion Powerlifter. At one time the lightest man to Squat over 1,000 lbs.

Compensatory Acceleration means with every lift, you push/pull the weight as hard and fast as you can; no matter how heavy the weight is.

Doing so,
immediate engages the "Super Fast" Type IIb/x and Fast Type IIa Muscle Fiber. It also is neural training that turn on these muscle fiber.

As one researcher (McBride, I have the research article) noted, the "Intent and effort to move a heavy loads quickly turns on these Fast Twitch Muscle Fiber; maximally training, working and developing them.

The "Intent" in moving any load should be to jump or throw it. Doing so, ensures all of the Fast Twitch Muscle Fiber are innervated and developed.

The issue with lighter loads is that up to 80% of the movement is devoted to putting on the brake and slowing the bar speed down, as in the Bench Press.

That because if you drove the weight all the way up with with a light load, you'd get a whiplash effect at lockout.

This can be overridden in one of two ways...

1) Going Ballistic: Throwing the bar up into the air with a light Bench Press. I've done this for years with free a free weight Bench Press.

What really works well is Smith Machine Bench Press Throws, It is much safer.

2) Accommodating Resistance: Attaching Chain and/or Band to the Bench Press
. This ensures that you are able to explode through the complete range of the movement rather than putting on the brakes.

Velocity (Power) Training

Compensatory Acceleration Training with light to moderate loads essentially is Velocity Training.

However, Compensatory Acceleration should be implemented with heavy load, as well.

Dr Jonathan Oliver research on Explosive Cluster Set Training with moderate loads with a well written program maintains or increase strength as well as increasing muscle mass.

Traditional Bodybuilding Hypertrophy Training


This traditional method is still more effective with Cluster Set Hypertrophy coming in a close second.

The issue with the Traditional Bodybuilding Hypertrophy Training Protocol is that muscle mass is increased a the expense of Speed, Power and Strength; all three drop like a rock.

The article below goes into...

Velocity Based Training for Maximal Strength
Velocity Based Training for Maximal Strength - Strength of Science

The Nuts and Bolts of Velocity Based Training
  1. The Load-Velocity Relationship
So without overstating the obvious, as the load in a given lift increases (and maximal intent to lift it as fast as possible is applied), the speed at which it moves decreases in a linear fashion 14.
  1. The Minimum Velocity Threshold
An important point to note is that the MVT varies by exercise 14. There is a consensus in the literature that the MVT for the bench press is approximately 0.15 m.s⁻¹. With our group of players (in 68 trials), velocity at 1RM in the bench press is consistent with research findings, with a group average of 0.15 ± 0.03 m.s⁻¹. The squat has been reported to be approximately 0.27 – 0.30 m.s⁻¹ 2, 6, although with our population (who generally box squat and rarely go to 1RM or failure), we found that in a small sample of 12 players velocity at 1RM in the box squat was found to be 0.25 ± 0.03 m.s⁻¹. Knowledge of the specific velocity characteristics of key strength exercises is vital for using velocity to predict 1RM based off sub-maximal loads or understanding how close to failure an athlete may be in a lift.

Velocity Based Training Methods in Maximal Strength Training
  1. Gauging effort and managing progressive overload
Undoubtedly the easiest to implement, and possibly the most successful strategy we have employed, has been to determine how taxing a set has been. ... If loads prescribed are too intense or fatiguing, progress can stall.

Despite rarely lifting at maximum load intensity, lower limb strength increased by 17.5% over the course of the pre-season and improved by 7.4% from end of pre-season strength levels one year previously. Upper limb strength increased by 7% over the pre-season and improved by 4.7% ..
  1. Estimating 1RM from sub-maximal loads
Perhaps one of the most well-known benefits of VBT is the ability to estimate 1RM from sub-maximal loads. The strength of the relationship between load and velocity means that we can, with a degree of accuracy, use one variable to estimate the other (provided that maximal intent to lift fast is applied and we know the MVT of the exercise). This is a valuable method to gauge the strength of an athlete without exposing them to the risk of maximal loads.
  1. Profiling strength qualities
A load-velocity profile can also highlight individual athlete characteristics and individual strengths and weaknesses.


So a player with a shallow line and therefore poor movement speed at sub-maximal loads, had training directed towards more dynamic, speed-strength methods (in this case a light bench press with bands for maximal power output). Conversely, a steep slope in the load-velocity profile, who was explosive with lower relative intensities, was directed to some very heavy, absolute strength development (in the form of a heavy, concentric only bench press from pins).

... VBT...using cut-off velocities is sensitive to fluctuations in the strength.

...stopped when velocity dropped by 20%.


...speed of lifting which highlights the importance of movement velocity in determining the neuromuscular response to training. ...The greater activation of the neuromuscular system as a result, is undoubtedly one of the key reasons behind the effectiveness of VBT. In environments where the use of velocity measuring devices is not feasible, similar improvements could be garnered by emphasising maximal speed of movement along with the appropriate selection of load with respect to level of effort.
  1. Monitoring changes in strength characteristics
... an improvement in movement velocity translates to an increase in strength. Gonzalez-Badillo and Sanchez-Medina (4) proposed that an increase in velocity of 0.07 – 0.09 m.s⁻¹ at a set load or across a range of loads yields a 5% improvement in 1RM.
Concluding thoughts.

VBT is more suited to experienced lifters with traditional methods more appropriate for novice athletes as a means to become familiar with technique and to improve the muscle tendon adaptation to a specific exercise. ... The use of VBT methods ultimately minimises the fatigue effect of the strength training stimulus, while maximising the performance aspect, ...
 
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Anna C

> 6k Posts
Elite Certified Instructor
Interesting presentation and good evidence. Thanks, Kenny.

I'm thinking it's also relevant support for including power-based training such as kettlebell ballistics or Olympic weightlifting.
 

kennycro@@aol.com

> 1k Posts
I'm thinking it's also relevant support for including power-based training such as kettlebell ballistics or Olympic weightlifting.
Conjugate Training

The empirical data from The Westside Powerlifting Method demonstrates that including Power Training assist with increasing Maximum Strength.

Dr Michael Zourdo' research came to the same conclusions.

Kettlebell Swings

As I have posted before, I am a huge advocate of Kettlebell Swings; especially Heavy Kettlebell Swing as a means of increasing Power.

The Power Output of Heavy Kettlebell Swings is comparable to Olympic Weightlifting Movements.

Kettlebell Swing provide for a smaller learning curve than Olympic Weightlifting Movements.

The Definition of Ballistic

"Ballistic training
, also called power training, is a form of training which involves throwing weights, and jumping with weights, in order to increase explosive power." [Ballistic training - Wikipedia}

Thus, Kettlebell Swing fall more into the category of Quazi-Ballistic with light to moderate load rather being "Kettlebell Ballistic".

For for the Kettlebell Swing to be Ballistic, with light to moderate loads, the Kettlebell needs to go airborne; be launched into the air.

Launching the Kettlebell into the air, ensures Power is developed a greater range of the movement.

Another method for ensuring Power is developed a greater range with a light to moderate Kettlebell Swing is...

Banded Kettlebell Swings

Craig Marker's video demonstrates it.
 

WhatWouldHulkDo

> 1k Posts
"Ballistic training, also called power training, is a form of training which involves throwing weights, and jumping with weights, in order to increase explosive power." [Ballistic training - Wikipedia}

Thus, Kettlebell Swing fall more into the category of Quazi-Ballistic with light to moderate load rather being "Kettlebell Ballistic".

For for the Kettlebell Swing to be Ballistic, with light to moderate loads, the Kettlebell needs to go airborne; be launched into the air.
Interesting. Would it be fair to say that, in order for a KB swing to truly be ballistic, there must be no "braking" action applied by the body at all? You apply as much power as possible getting out of the hole, and the bell must be heavy enough to truly must float at the top.

That would imply that a KB snatch is pretty much never truly ballistic. Thinking about a heavy barball snatch, you put as much upward momentum on the bar as possible, but then drop under it and catch it - there really isn't any sort of braking applied to the bar. I've never seen (or done) a KB snatch that way - you always have to apply the brakes at the top.

If that's all correct, seems a good argument for KB snatch junkies to work in some heavy swings sometimes, to work max power.
 
Kettlebell snatch/squat involves no breaking action, but you do have to time it right. Although, dropping under it negates some of the "throw" aspect.
In a similar vein, only a really heavy swing would qualify, where you have to fight to get your arms level.

Throwing a sandbag in the air might also qualify, even if you catch it there is no breaking action at the top of the throw.
 

kurt perham

Double-Digit Post Count
dont forget good old fashioned SPRINTING. 10-15m dead stop sprints are part of my stick and ball athletes program 3 x per week.
 

Antti

> 4k Posts
I would argue that to get the kettlebell swing truly a ballistic exercise, the correct course of action is simply to let go of the handle. Of course, not always an option, but I don't think there is any substitute.
 

WhatWouldHulkDo

> 1k Posts
Kettlebell snatch/squat involves no breaking action, but you do have to time it right.
Entirely possible/probable that my technique is off... but I find there's a breaking action in the horizontal direction, and I never felt that with a barbell snatch. I'd agree that done right there's no breaking vertically.
 

Steve Freides

Forum Administrator
Senior Certified Instructor
Elite Certified Instructor
Against my better judgement :) I am going to suggest a new category of ballistics - two-way ballistics. Much like a depth jump, the backswing of the kettlebell preloads the movement in a way that, among weighted movements, is unusual. That's not to say it's never been done with a bar, e.g., I've seen people do jump squats with a light-for-them weight wherein they absorb the "shock" of the weight coming down and then use that stored energy to explode up on their next rep.

Two-way ballistics, anyone?

-S-
 

kennycro@@aol.com

> 1k Posts
Would it be fair to say that, in order for a KB swing to truly be ballistic, there must be no "braking" action applied by the body at all?
Descending Strength Curve

Kettlebell Swings have a Descending Strength. Once you get the bell moving in the swing, the bottom hole position is the easier. A lot of that has to do with the stretch reflex; more that in a minute.

As the swing reaches the top end of the movement, gravity and the weight of Kettlebell limits how high the bell ascends.

Heavy Swing Example

Let's say a 180 lb individual is performing swing with a 60 lb plus Kettlebell, (one-third of you weight or more).

The weight of this Kettlebell is going to limit how high you pull it in a Traditional Kettlebell Swing, even more so with an American Kettlbell Swing.

Secondly, as the weight of the Kettle nears your you max, more force can be applied through a greater range of the movement

That because is a Descending Strength Curve and gravity providing a "Braking Effect".

Light To Moderate Swings

In Kettlebell Swing with a light to moderate weight Bell, individuals metaphorically speaking, take their foot off the gas, allowing the Bell to float to the top of the swing.

if you continued to pull as hard and fast as you can to the end the movement while holding on, you'd get a "Whiplash Effect.

Two method that allow you to produce power through a greater range of the movement with a light to moderately heavy Kettlebell are...

1) Launching The Kettlebell; Launching/Throwing the Kettlebell as far as you can.

2) Banded Kettlebell Swing; Dr Craig Mark has good video on it. The bands increasing resistance at the end of the range of the movement allowing you continue to pulling the Kettlebell through a greater range of the movement.

bell must be heavy enough to truly must float at the top.
More or Less Float

There's going to be more floating of the Kettlebell with a lighter Kettlebell compared to a heavy Kettlebell.

seems a good argument for KB snatch junkies to work in some heavy swings sometimes, to work max power.
Power Training With Heavier Load

Power Training with heavier loads allows for power to be developed through a greater range of a movement compared to when using lighter loads.

Research on Bench Press demonstrated this...

"Research has shown as much as 75% of a movement can be devoted to slowing the bar down." (Flannagan, 2001). Elliot et al. (1989) revealed that during 1-RM bench presses, the bar decelerates for the final 24% of the range of motion. At 81% of 1-RM, the bar deceleration occurs during the final 52% of the range of motion. The accompanying deceleration phases result in significantly decreased motor unit recruitment, velocity of movement, power production and compromises the effectiveness of the exercise." (Berry et. al., 2001)"

With that in mind, you need to keep in mind that the Bench Press is an Ascending Strength Curve (hard at the bottom and easy at the top)

The Kettlebell Swing and Snatch are Descending Strength Curve Movements (easy at the bottom and harder at the top).
 
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